History of Coca: The Divine Plant of the Incas

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 11.80 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

The fibers, he wrote, were braided into ropes of the length necessary for the bridge. Inca nobles wore were rich costumes, but not quite as rich as the Emperors. In the lower left corner, there is an abacus counting device used with maize kernels on which computations were performed and later transferred to the quipu. The Coricancha, or Temple of Gold, boasted an ornamental garden where the clods of earth, maize plants complete with leaves and corn cobs, were fashioned from silver and gold.

The Early Ceramics of the Inca Heartland

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 9.14 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

Moche history can be extensively separated into three periods – the rise of the Moche society in Early Moche (AD 100–300), its development and brilliance amid Middle Moche (AD 300–600), and the urban nucleation and resulting breakdown in Late Moche (AD 500–750). The emperor of the Inca was known as the Sapa Inca. He recognized that the Sun was much larger than the Earth, which would have influenced this early heliocentric concept.

Machu Picchu: Exploring an Ancient Sacred Center (WORLD

Johan Reinhard

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 12.12 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

The truth causes people to ask uncomfortable questions of authority. Their extraordinary ability to triumph on the battlefield and to build a civilization, brick by brick, sent a clear message, says Dennis Ogburn, an archaeologist at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte: "I think they were saying, We are the most powerful people in the world, so don't even think of messing with us." The empire reached its peak after the conquests of Emperor Huayna Capac, who reigned from 1493 until around 1527, when he apparently died of smallpox.

The Incas of Peru

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 9.23 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

His general, Ptolemy, on becoming independent ruler of the country in 305 BC, was also crowned pharaoh, and his line lasted down to the famous queen, Cleopatra, who died in 31 BC. The Aztecs believed Huitzilopochtli their war god was their protector, how had them search for their promised land. Most of these aqueducts were built close to mountain sides. Their legends speak of battles between light-skinned people and dark-skinned people and there was ancient Incan royalty with white skin and light beards.

The Incas (Peoples of America)

Terence N. D'Altroy

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 7.06 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

INCA October 30, 2009 The earliest inscriptions in an identifiably-Maya script date back to 200–300 BC. Upon its ruins he founded Mexico City. •Tenochtitlán was laid out in a grid system of streets and canals around a ceremonial precinct of pyramids, temples, and palaces. •The city was divided into four zones or campan, each campan was divided on 20 districts (calpullis), and each calpulli was crossed by streets or tlaxilcalli. •There were three main streets that crossed the city, each leading to one of the three causeways to the mainland.

Peru, Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the

E. G. Squier

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 10.07 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

At a shady trial run by the Spanish, Atahualpa was sentenced to death in August 1533. The Classic Era Maya civilization was quite advanced. This view was derived from his opinion that the Maya were peaceful astronomy priests. During a battle, slingers would let fly a shower of rocks to soften the enemy lines. It is said that the major Aztec weapon could chop off the head of a horse with one blow! It’s not easy to retrace your steps in jungle where no trails exist.’2 Percy Fawcett’s younger son, Brian Fawcett, reports the following story, told to him by a friend: Some years ago, when I was working in the mining camp at Cerro de Pasco (a place 14,000 feet up in the Andes of Central Peru), I went out one Sunday with some other Gringos to visit some old Inca or Pre-Inca graves – to see if we could find anything worth while.

Guide to Documentary Sources for Andean Studies, 1530–1900

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 14.87 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

El Paraíso, Sechin Alto) were initiated by mariners familiar with the traditions of West Asia and later India. The government must have been strong and well organized in order to carry out such a large task. Although the Incans had by now learned some European tactics of war they were outclassed by technical advantages. The shape of its characters often do not resemble the corresponding Lishu or Kaishu character, in that some strokes are merged into one and others are simply left out.

The Metamorphosis of Heads: Textual Struggles, Education,

Denise Y. Arnold

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 14.30 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

To help the Pharaoh in governing the land, an elaborate organization of officials, scribes and overseers – the world’s first civil service – developed, bringing the reach of government down to the lowliest villager. If you settle near that wonder, then you've got a really good start, and if you manage to get One With Nature, religion is guaranteed. They played a ballgame with ritual significance and left behind elaborate ball courts. Money existed in the form of work—each subject of the empire paid "taxes" by laboring on the myriad roads, crop terraces, irrigation canals, temples, or fortresses.

Lost city of the Incas;: The story of Machu Picchu and its

Hiram Bingham

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 6.91 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

He also points out that, unlike the blocks from Kachiqhata, the blocks quarried at the Rumiqolqa quarry were fine-dressed at the quarry but show no drag marks at all; he has no idea how the dressed blocks were transported. A ruler could be recognized at once from the shape of his diadem and from its color, turquoise, which was reserved for royal use. The Maya are probably the best-known of the classical civilizations of Mesoamerica. Today, many of their descendants throughout Central America still speak an evolved version of the Mayan language and have managed to retain some ancient Mayan practices.

Ritual and Pilgrimage in the Ancient Andes: The Islands of

Brian S. Bauer

Format: Paperback

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 13.60 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

He wrote a number of books on ancient civilization. It has wings, it has a stabilising tail, it has some kind of landing gear, what else do you need? However, some semblance of order, as required in any large city, still prevailed. The fibre was even finer than cashmere, and seems to have been the result of selectively breeding llamas.8 Some writers have suggested that the amazing variety of maize and potatoes in ancient Peru must be the result of genetic experiments.9 William Sullivan, The Secret of the Incas: Myth, astronomy, and the war against time, New York: Three Rivers Press, 1996, pp. 251, 255-7.